Classification of disaster 2

In writing my first disaster classification discuss disaster based on a contributing factor. This time I will discuss the classification of disasters in the order / sequence of events.

Classification of disaster based on the sequence of events is the Disaster primary, secondary, tertiary and quarter. In the event the real disaster could have been a disaster only a primary event or could be sequentially until tertiary disaster.

General definition of each category of disasters are:
  1. Primary disaster is a pure disaster caused by natural factors
  2. Secondary disaster is a disaster that occurred because of human failures in an attempt to control, manage and / or reverse nature.
  3. Tertiary disaster is a disaster caused by advanced secondary disaster
  4. Quaternary disaster is an advanced disaster caused by the tertiary disaster

For more details, let us follow the example of the following sequence of events.

A town located in the limestone hills dry and always short of water in the dry season. This condition is more miserable people and cause loss of time and cost. For example they must search for a distant water source or wait for the water supply from another city.

Many cattle died because of no available food and water enough. These events can be categorized as primary disaster.
To overcome the above condition of the government's efforts to build a dam in the upstream areas that will accommodate the flow of water in the rainy season and used as a reserve in the dry season.

After the reservoir so it increases public welfare and reservoirs to be the only means of supporting life in the dry season. Due to negligence or bad officers operational and maintenance efforts building the dam at a very high rainfall occurred over-topping the dam embankment, causing the collapse of the dam. This disaster led to the newspaper life and property as much as 3 sub-districts located in the downstream areas and also cause the termination of the main bridges in the city. This event is called a secondary disaster.

Sub D and the surrounding area is on a hillside far from town A and access to the only road into town is via the bridge that broke up due to the collapse of the dam. Dissolution of the bridge disaster, subdistrict D experiencing shortages of food, fuel, people lose access and mobility to the city A, etc. have lost their livelihoods. so that before the construction of emergency bridge and new bridge D community in the district that experienced a lot of drought, disease and other losses. This event is called tertiary disaster.

Because D and the surrounding district had not received proper help, lack of food and health services and other losses that occurred then social chaos. Theft and security problems increase due to isolated areas. This event is called the Quaternary disaster.

Another example of the circuit is very much a disaster, such as volcanoes, crop failures, etc. The death of a leader.
From the above classification we be able to assess a disaster, including in the category of what and why the disaster happened. An event that seemed to be a natural disaster (primary) could be a disaster due to human error (secondary) or other follow-up disasters (tertiary or quarter).
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Classification of disasters

Based on the causes of the occurrence of the disaster can be grouped into 2 (two) that is a disaster because the factors of nature and disaster caused by human errors. Disaster caused by natural factors such as earthquakes, tsunamis, mountain erupt, etc. They called Natural Disaster.

While the disasters cause of human errors such as the failure of buildings (broken-down embankment, bridge / building collapse, etc.), bomb terror, social unrest, war etc.

However, in addition to the above example, there is a disaster that is a combination of natural factors and human errors.

Examples of disaster due to natural factors and human errors are:

1. Flood

Nature factor: the flood occurred because the level of rainfall is high in the headwaters area, so capacity is not sufficient and river flood occurred in the area of flood plains and downstream areas.

Human error factor: flooding occurred because the deforestation was increasing so that the surface erosion occurs when rain and then the ability of soil to absorb water in a rain reduced / lost. Increased flow of surface water that ultimately flows to the river all the capacity is limited. There were floods. Other cases are flooding in dense population areas or settlements where urban drainage channels are not being built properly.

2. Landslides

Nature factor: rock weathering that occurs due to changes in temperature by heat of the sun and rain changes throughout the year, also because of corrosion activity in the belly of magma volcanoes. Rock weathering caused the thick layer of soil from time to time. When adding soil layer thickness occurs at the slope then boosted power to be reduced so that the slope stability reduced. Slopes that are less stable when it was increasing the water saturation at the time of rain added to the burden on the surface it will be easy slope landslides occur.

Human error factor: canyon slopes or landslides may occur by human activities such as cutting, housing, road development, mining etc. All of which can disrupt the stability slopes.

3. There are many more examples of the disaster of a combination between natural factors and human errors we can find such as drought, famine etc.

In the above combination of disasters can cause one of the factors such as natural or human errors but it is often the result of both factors together.
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Lahar Flood; disaster or blessing?

Cold lahar flood is a natural event caused by the vulcanic deposition results from the volcano eruption of saturated water at the time of heavy rain so that the flow of debris down the form to slope away to the low. If the flow along the river, there was no handling of the flood of lava (eg, sabo dam building) then the flow of cold lava can cause natural disasters, with a very high damage to the body of the river, building on the river bank and lowland areas in the river downstream. In fact, in many cases lava flood events can cause the victim a large amount of soul.


Post-lahar flood can occur hoarding material vulcanic sand and rock along the river flow. Although at the beginning of the likely damage to his arrival but on the other hand the return of material is highly awaited by the people in the area around the river as a blessing. And activities of mining sand and stone can be done.

Mining activities, sand and stones in the vicinity of the river by the people around the river, is required for regulating the mining, so it does not cause problems such as unwanted struggling mining area, the problem of licensing and environmental issues.

The need for mining rules

Activities in the mining of sand and stone, direct interactions occur between the three (3) components of society that is the area around the mine, local governments and organizations engaged in sand mining business.

The three components above should cooperate each other to form the system that's mutually beneficial. Community to give authority to local governments to manage and create a procedure with the mining establish formal rules or regulations and the other local governments are obliged to provide protection.

Relations between local governments and community organizations is the local government to give permission to the organizations authorized to conduct mining with certain rules, while organizations are obliged to pay taxes and keep the environment by following the rule's conception of the environment.

Relationship between community organizations (company's) community with the mining company is to provide opportunities for people to be mine so that workers have the tariffs or fees must be paid to the company's mining community.

When the third relationship can be harmonious and run the rule's set the activities of sand and stone mining can mutually benefit all parties and also the environment.

The problems that arise around the mining of sand

Although in theory the relationship between the community, local government and mining companies can walk in harmony, but in practice in the field, it can become very complex and prone to problems.

Problems often arise, for example there's the wild do not have permission, breach of rules mining, less specifically provided sanctions for the offender, environmental and building storm flow of sediments due to the mining rules infringe, misuse of tax payments etc..

To overcome the above problems are not always easy because the condition is usually complex and there are conflicts of interest from the third component of the community. In the community are usually still less awareness of the preservation of the environment around the mine, including agricultural land and settlements so that their mining activities in the area of the property would culminate in damage to the environment because it does not limit the sand mining is a set standard so that mining companies violate the rules in the mining activities.

Next problem is still there's just wild that does not have a permit. And mining company that has a permit but mining activities violate the rules. For example, they do mining in the vicinity of the building foundation sabo dam so that the stable building. River canyon cutting and digging that violate the limit depth of water so that the lower face of the earth. In this case action is required or expressly sanctioned by the security apparatus, the people themselves and the local government as termination of mining activities and wild mining permit revocation.

The problem is most often ignored is the damage to the environment. If the rule's set is not implemented properly then the environment will be the victims. The building does not control the flow of sediments in accordance with its function, the basic degradation of the river experienced a decline in face of ground water, river cliffs prone to landslides that result in a reduction of agricultural land and settlement residents, the lack of land into the water, dead plants, animals and eventually starve the existence of ecosystems and the life of the region's threatened.

When environmental degradation is threatening the existence of life will arise, namely the impact of continued hunger and social conflict in which each component of the community will blame each other and not feel responsible.

So to avoid or at least minimize the danger of environmental damage that has already occurred in the area of sand mining needs to be done step by step persuasive and decisive penalty by law enforcement. And more important is to increase public awareness of the three components together to perform mining activities, sand and stone are the environment.
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The influence of the rainy season is too long

Currently in some areas are presented on a long rainy season. When we see a seasonal cycle in the tropics, particularly Indonesia, in the normal condition of the rainy season falls in the month of October - April and the dry season occurs in April-October.

In April there's turnover in the rainy season to dry season. Change this pattern, marked with a range of days is not that the long rains, winds blow much faster. Are in the month of October is vice versa.

Cycle can be shifted only one or even two months so that the number of days in the rainy season or dry season becomes longer or shorter.

Now we have tread the middle of June and the rain is quite swift and still can not ascertain whether the rainy season will end soon. Indeed, some regions in Indonesia that have already entered the dry season. Then, if the impact area for the rainy season is longer?

It can have positive impact and negative

Positive impact:
  • On areas that often experience drought, the longer rainy season cause the areas have supply of water more and planting the garden for longer. Water supply in the catchment areas of water such as reservoirs and lakes will supply for agriculture and drinking water in the dry season.
Negative impact:
  • On urban areas, the flood danger still threatens, because in this times, the rain cycle is harder to predict. Sometimes a heavy rain came suddenly in a short duration but that result in a flood-prone.
  • On areas such as agriculture that have a cycle three (3) monthly planting in rice fields, then at the end of May until mid-June will enter the second harvest. Still occur when the rain season harvest will be many problems, such as rice field soil is still wet even have a still stagnant water, drying of rice that are difficult to do in the open because the rain does not tend to be predicted. For rice field areas that prone water stagnated due the river overflow, they also threatened the harvest failed, because with the heavy rain could trigger flooding and river overflow swamp area rice field. Rice will be harvested before damage.
  • In the side of health, change the season to trigger a shift in physical adaptation to the season also shifted. Because basically extended rainy season this was not the real rainy season. This is the turn of the season is longer than usual. And this condition will force our bodies to adapt to change and extreme weather can cause a decrease in resistance of the body cause health disturbances.
So, if the turn of the season is longer such as this time, we need to take early preventive measures against negative impacts that can befall us and the environment around us.

The latter, when in fact the natural conditions such as this to cause physical and material loss, whether this can be categorized as a natural disaster?

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River of my childhood

Sunday is the opportunity I have 1 week holiday and to visit my home. The village in the Wilis mount slopes with cool air, I felt like returning to my first little period, each day playing in the rice field terracing, playing kites continue to bathe in the river is clear with the black stones are large.

Wilis mount has a height of 2552 meters, and the peak is located on the border between the six districts in Kediri, Tulungagung, Nganjuk, Madiun, Ponorogo, and Trenggalek. Tourism Wilis Mount is the most waterfalls, but it has not been developed so far. (source from wikipedia)

After visiting my parents house was extended to see the river that is full of memories. I also remote, about 1 km from the house. When I was still small, a short distance away because we walked with friends. My motorcycle parking at the bridge then go down the river canyon.

But I am disappointed, because the feeling of beauty and clarity of the river have been lost. Water flow, which was always clear and is now clouded by dirty plastics. Previously we often sit on the stone in the river while the shrimp occasionally notice ran behind the stone. The stones size as big as a truck . Now the stones are full of moss and waste involved. It's sad to see the fact almost 20 years passed and everything changed. Not improved but even worsened.

Then I ride back to the bridge and the beautiful memories to try to forget it. After taking some photos I go to another place where I had through my childhood, to the rice field while enjoying the beautiful Wilis mount from afar.

Sitting over a motorcycle while feeling the wind blowing, it feels very peaceful and beautiful.

However there's a sense that in the past often appear in mind when bathing in the river, the stones of the car can be located in the river, where it came from? Now I have the answer.

There are two possible origin of the stones:

  1. They are the result of lahar flow eruption of Wilis Mount, which is consistent character lahar flows can flow up to tens of kilometers down the slope and the downstream river. That means that the Wilis mount somewhere years is how active the volcano never erupt.
  2. on the Wilis mount slopes had occurred a large-scale soil erosion and landslide material including stones large flow saturated by water due to rain and into the flow of debris.
Both the above possibilities can be received. In the first alternative, Wilis Mount are classified as sleep and evidence of magma activity is still seen as the source of hot water, hot gas discharge from the bottom of Ngebel Lake (in Wilis mountain slopes) at the time that killed the fish in it.
Because there is still magma activity then it is likely sometime Wilis mountain could erupt again if the magma activity increased. Conditions have occurred on Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines.

While the second alternative is true when certain landslides occurred in a very large scale so that material can flow up to nearly 30 km from Mount Wilis to my village, and below it.

But the documents and the data is not never know. What is there or not.

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Indonesia- mega mall of natural disasters

In this world that has a largest risk of natural disasters is Asia, It said the mall of disaster, while Indonesia is the mega mall of disaster. Extraordinary .....!!!

Why be so extreme as a mega mall disaster?
Of course that we follow are described in the Indonesian archipelago that is confluence of three tectonic plates that make up the earth's crust is Asia plates (not moving), Indo-Australian plates are moving to the north and the Pacific plates, also shifted to the north and northwest.

From the confluence plates would happen Indo-Australia plates subduction to the bottom of the plates along the coast of Asia, namely the Indian Ocean from Sumatra, Java, Bali, Nusa Tenggara and Maluku. And from subduction will happen to friction plates. Reaction friction is tectonic earthquake occurrence and the formation of magma under the earth's crust that cause the emergence of many islands along the volcano-island.

Yes ... sure, this is the little global we need to realize that while many symptoms of other nature that may be highly fatal, the result of human activity always do damage and we never compromise with nature.

If the earthquake and the mountains erupt tectonic pure natural phenomenon as the result of human activity then there were landslides, floods, forest fires, fire villages / market, bombardment, collapse of building / dam, and many more.

During the events of the above does not cause the victim lives and the material loss is considered a normal phenomenon of nature, rather then if it is indeed a disaster.

Figure 2: dots of tectonic earthquake on the world, there is a visible location of the earthquake tectonic plates sides and Indonesia are in the intersection three tectonic plates (source: Mac Graw-Hill Companies Inc - MPBA lecture material)

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Pyroclastic is lava material that came out of magma kitchen, formed a lava dome at the peak of the volcano and then collapse in form of stone and sand blocks and was followed by glowing dust vulcanic as heat cloud.
Based on the activities, Pyroclastic consists of 2 types, namely:

1. The flow of pyroclastic material from the slide down the slope lava dome. Material under the form of blocks of lava rock and large and small to form a cloud above the summer. Flow occurs because the high pressure gas. (a typical phenomenon Mount Merapi, Central Java, often called by the name wedus gembel).
2.Lava dome is directly released into the air due to volcano eruption. This activity is closed in the sky around the explosion and the falling material can cause tremendous damage to tens of miles to reach the distance. When the hot material falling to the sea in large numbers can lead to the occurrence of pairs of even tsunami waves.

#The picture taked from here
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Mass movement and Landslide

Mass movement is a movement of soil / rock of slopes composer downhill slope stability due to the disturbance gradient.

Landslide is the mass movement through the field sliding on slopes. Sliding field is curved or sloping field on the slopes.

(Skempton and Hutchinson (1969), Chowdhury (1978), Varnes (1978))

Mass movement can occur when there are factors that lead to disruption triggered slope stability so that the style backstop slope of the smaller slopes of style.

Checker slope stability factor is slope gradient, rock composer layer, fracture in the talus field that formed a weak zone slope and hydrological conditions (water system) of slope.

Trigger factors of mass movement, namely:

* Water infiltration, eg rainwater and pond / irrigation is not watertight.
* Vibration, eg earthquake, explosion or vibration in heavy vehicles slopes.
* Wrong land used on slopes area
* Imposition of excessive slope (eg by the home / building).
* Cutting slopes

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Select the first flood or Landslide?

Indonesia awarded by God with the forest area of the mountains which are spread in all corners of the country. So beautiful green carpet is seen. Moreover, if the rainy season, every corner of the empty land around us, grass and shrub is growing so fast. The beautiful panorama is still clearly visible at the time I first small around 1980's.
What beauty is still there until now? If we go to rural areas may still be, but it will be very difficult to meet again in the urban areas. Because the shrub also do not have the right to live there, let alone the forest.

How the fate of our mountains? Some still look natural with a dense tropical forest. But most have very fate of concern. Barren, arid and no sir. While the mountains with dense forests are still many who have experienced landslides. The end result is the same damage to nature.

Perhaps the description above is not an issue that we need to think about because it is hundreds and even thousands of times we hear and natural without any settlement. Whether there is still little awareness of us? If so, I may be the description the following can give a little description of why it can happen, and why floods and landslides continue the seemingly never stopped.

Flood Phenomena

Genesis flood here I only discuss it in the beginning of the headwaters and the river does not discuss about the problems in urban areas that do not lose the complexity.
Hydrological cycle in which the ideal natural conditions, the rain water that fell in the river headwaters
three things happen, namely:

  • direct the water flow in the surface soil and into rivers,
  • water bottle up by plants ago trickle into some of the land and have some of the flow on the surface and have a vapor return,
  • water that seep into ground water.
What if the natural conditions were not ideal, for example, a few plants?
  1. Surface flow will be greater, causing soil erosion which will flow along the rivers. So the river became shallow.
  2. Water seep into the ground a little more because there is no storm water plants, as the rain and the soil erosion. But the ground water supplies diminish.
  3. When rainfall is very high then the flow along the surface sediment will flow downstream to the swift river in spate and the surrounding area. There were floods.
So the outline, one of the causes of the occurrence of flooding in lowland areas of both urban and low is the deforestation in the headwaters area. The cause is poor drainage system, decreasing the infiltration of water due to a settlement and others.

Landslide Phenomena

As I was on the definition of polecat landslides and soil movement in the post earlier, several factors have triggered the occurrence of landslides. When we are talking landslide problem then our attention is on the slope condition. Are slopes causing landslides that bald?
What about the slopes with dense vegetation that? The answer is no landslides have direct contact with the vegetation above, both lush and barren.
The main disturbance is the occurrence of landslide slope stability. Interference can be due to natural and human activities.
Natural causes are:
  1. increasing layer thickness due to soil weathering rock layer below the soil due to the volcano activity. Here's the explanation: In the beginning slopes have a thin layer of soil (ideal) so that the slope is stable, although the dense vegetation to grow. Because of the activity in the magma of the earth, the heat generated to spread around and the rock layers of a layer of rock weathering on the outside, and eventually into the ground slopes become unstable due to soil layers thick add more burden on slopes prone to landslides and even surface form of the forest.
  2. earthquake
  3. river flow which is very swift at the time of rain, causing the river canyon, which is a foot slope tergerus.
  4. rain water in the sink in the slope and restrained by a waterproof layer of rock under the soil layer on the slope so that the soil becomes unstable because of water saturated.
While the cause is due to human activities:
  1. loading slope for residential development and other buildings
  2. cutting foot slope to build houses, roads and other buildings without the cliffs make cultivation post-amputation. For example, the land barrier wall, plaster, etc.
  3. wild mining material in the bottom of the river which is a foot slope. Elevation basis with a decrease in river slope then becomes unstable. And landslides.
May still be many other causes that I have not mentioned.

Keeping the mountain or forest?

In addition to natural factors as the causes of floods and landslides that can not be avoided, then there are some dilemmas that occur in an effort to save the hills and forests in the headwaters.
To avoid flooding the condition of water infiltration areas should be as much as possible. With the forest so dense a flood of business is possible. However, on slopes that are not stable, then the existence of the forest with a high level of infiltration is a disaster because it is vulnerable to landslides.
So we need to know the point-prone areas and provide a priority action to save the mountain or forest. Prevent erosion or flooding.
How easy is the most natural condition as the original. But it's not nearly as possible, yet the condition of natural fact we have so sad.
So far all the readers that we can do, what about our actions to reduce the occurrence of factors triggered floods and landslides in our beloved country, the disaster will be reduced so that in the future?
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Magma, lava and lahar

Magma is a material made in the earth's crust (plates tektonik) form of the fluorescent material in the mud temperature is very high (up to 1000 degrees Celsius). Occur as a result of friction / collision tektonik two plates, resulting in high temperatures and form the kitchen magma pushing upwards and can bring the volcano. Here is the image formation process and magma volcano.

Lava is magma that comes from the belly of the earth / volcano due to an increase in activity vulkanik in the volcano. Lava can be out of fluid flowing down the mountain slope to a place far away in the valley, magma can also come out and stayed around the top of the volcano and formed lava dome (dome) so that the volcano is more visible (eg on the mount Merapi in Central Java) .

Lahar is lava mixed with water (either rain or other waters such as lakes in the vicinity of the mountain) so it becomes saturated and forms a flow with high-speed glide down the slopes to distances of tens of kilometers. When the lava is still hot water mixed, or a new kitchen out of the magma post erupsi then the hot lava. Conversely when the lava has buried long in the mountain slopes after erupsi ago mixed water in the wet season it will produce the flow of cold lava. Second type lava above have the same risk of post-disaster on the mountain erupsi fire that caused many victims of the soul
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Knowing - Is the come story about?

Watching the movie "knowing" after the end of trimester II exams week is the right moment. While not all planned. I just think, after the test, watching movie directly. Wow, turns out there is that film is My favorite story. Not yet have a good time watching.

Jump to the movie ...

The big story is here. In the year 1959 at an Elementary School in Massachusetts made a time capsule burial inside the envelope containing the load image of the shadow of 50 years of elementary school students are. But Lucinda Embry students who are most miserable conditions, heard strange sounds throughout the day and write it into the paper that contains the numbers of random weird.

Short stories in 2009, it's time to open the time capsule and elementary students are (now) fight to get one envelope. And Caleb son of professor John Koestler(Nicholas Cage) who get an envelope from Lucinda Embry.

Chance, random numbers suspect John and rewrite on the white board, and thanks to google rock, he found the mystery numbers that is a series of events from the date of the disaster, the number of victims and the location of the disaster which is the astronomical location (latitude and longitude)

All events are disasters that occurred in the fifty years and only 3 of the disaster has not occurred, one of which is solar storms that will destroy half the earth's surface at the time of the incident dealing with the direct sun.

Messages about resignation

However, John tried to anticipate the disaster that left 3, he can not fight destiny and the events that occurred with the victim still the exact same with the written. By the end of the story that the "Hour" is actually going to burn the entire surface of the earth, and only those who are selected will be saved and a life from scratch again.

Who is the person selected?

Although at first this movie seems absurb but clear message that we can not fight destiny. Weare only given a warning and who believes that will be more ready to serve.

Unlike the films of hollywood previous disasters, such Armagedon (1999), Volcano, Dante's Peak, Twister etc. ended about courage in conquering the United States and is a victory, in the film is how this country's super power can not do anything.

Conditions such as this story will be different cause shock for people who do not believe in God than the people who believe. So we all depend on how the nature of an event.

Back to my story

Because the type of film is my favorite, so I stay here and write a reflection to the side to take all positive. For those who have not been watching ... whether you're interested in? And that is watching, how do you think?


Movie Title: Knowing

Players: Nicholas Cage, Rose Byrne, Chandler Canterbury, Lara Robinson, Ben Mendelsohn
Director: Alex Proyas

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