Classification of disaster 2

In writing my first disaster classification discuss disaster based on a contributing factor. This time I will discuss the classification of disasters in the order / sequence of events.

Classification of disaster based on the sequence of events is the Disaster primary, secondary, tertiary and quarter. In the event the real disaster could have been a disaster only a primary event or could be sequentially until tertiary disaster.

General definition of each category of disasters are:
  1. Primary disaster is a pure disaster caused by natural factors
  2. Secondary disaster is a disaster that occurred because of human failures in an attempt to control, manage and / or reverse nature.
  3. Tertiary disaster is a disaster caused by advanced secondary disaster
  4. Quaternary disaster is an advanced disaster caused by the tertiary disaster

For more details, let us follow the example of the following sequence of events.

A town located in the limestone hills dry and always short of water in the dry season. This condition is more miserable people and cause loss of time and cost. For example they must search for a distant water source or wait for the water supply from another city.

Many cattle died because of no available food and water enough. These events can be categorized as primary disaster.
To overcome the above condition of the government's efforts to build a dam in the upstream areas that will accommodate the flow of water in the rainy season and used as a reserve in the dry season.

After the reservoir so it increases public welfare and reservoirs to be the only means of supporting life in the dry season. Due to negligence or bad officers operational and maintenance efforts building the dam at a very high rainfall occurred over-topping the dam embankment, causing the collapse of the dam. This disaster led to the newspaper life and property as much as 3 sub-districts located in the downstream areas and also cause the termination of the main bridges in the city. This event is called a secondary disaster.

Sub D and the surrounding area is on a hillside far from town A and access to the only road into town is via the bridge that broke up due to the collapse of the dam. Dissolution of the bridge disaster, subdistrict D experiencing shortages of food, fuel, people lose access and mobility to the city A, etc. have lost their livelihoods. so that before the construction of emergency bridge and new bridge D community in the district that experienced a lot of drought, disease and other losses. This event is called tertiary disaster.

Because D and the surrounding district had not received proper help, lack of food and health services and other losses that occurred then social chaos. Theft and security problems increase due to isolated areas. This event is called the Quaternary disaster.

Another example of the circuit is very much a disaster, such as volcanoes, crop failures, etc. The death of a leader.
From the above classification we be able to assess a disaster, including in the category of what and why the disaster happened. An event that seemed to be a natural disaster (primary) could be a disaster due to human error (secondary) or other follow-up disasters (tertiary or quarter).
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Classification of disasters

Based on the causes of the occurrence of the disaster can be grouped into 2 (two) that is a disaster because the factors of nature and disaster caused by human errors. Disaster caused by natural factors such as earthquakes, tsunamis, mountain erupt, etc. They called Natural Disaster.

While the disasters cause of human errors such as the failure of buildings (broken-down embankment, bridge / building collapse, etc.), bomb terror, social unrest, war etc.

However, in addition to the above example, there is a disaster that is a combination of natural factors and human errors.

Examples of disaster due to natural factors and human errors are:

1. Flood

Nature factor: the flood occurred because the level of rainfall is high in the headwaters area, so capacity is not sufficient and river flood occurred in the area of flood plains and downstream areas.

Human error factor: flooding occurred because the deforestation was increasing so that the surface erosion occurs when rain and then the ability of soil to absorb water in a rain reduced / lost. Increased flow of surface water that ultimately flows to the river all the capacity is limited. There were floods. Other cases are flooding in dense population areas or settlements where urban drainage channels are not being built properly.

2. Landslides

Nature factor: rock weathering that occurs due to changes in temperature by heat of the sun and rain changes throughout the year, also because of corrosion activity in the belly of magma volcanoes. Rock weathering caused the thick layer of soil from time to time. When adding soil layer thickness occurs at the slope then boosted power to be reduced so that the slope stability reduced. Slopes that are less stable when it was increasing the water saturation at the time of rain added to the burden on the surface it will be easy slope landslides occur.

Human error factor: canyon slopes or landslides may occur by human activities such as cutting, housing, road development, mining etc. All of which can disrupt the stability slopes.

3. There are many more examples of the disaster of a combination between natural factors and human errors we can find such as drought, famine etc.

In the above combination of disasters can cause one of the factors such as natural or human errors but it is often the result of both factors together.
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Lahar Flood; disaster or blessing?

Cold lahar flood is a natural event caused by the vulcanic deposition results from the volcano eruption of saturated water at the time of heavy rain so that the flow of debris down the form to slope away to the low. If the flow along the river, there was no handling of the flood of lava (eg, sabo dam building) then the flow of cold lava can cause natural disasters, with a very high damage to the body of the river, building on the river bank and lowland areas in the river downstream. In fact, in many cases lava flood events can cause the victim a large amount of soul.


Post-lahar flood can occur hoarding material vulcanic sand and rock along the river flow. Although at the beginning of the likely damage to his arrival but on the other hand the return of material is highly awaited by the people in the area around the river as a blessing. And activities of mining sand and stone can be done.

Mining activities, sand and stones in the vicinity of the river by the people around the river, is required for regulating the mining, so it does not cause problems such as unwanted struggling mining area, the problem of licensing and environmental issues.

The need for mining rules

Activities in the mining of sand and stone, direct interactions occur between the three (3) components of society that is the area around the mine, local governments and organizations engaged in sand mining business.

The three components above should cooperate each other to form the system that's mutually beneficial. Community to give authority to local governments to manage and create a procedure with the mining establish formal rules or regulations and the other local governments are obliged to provide protection.

Relations between local governments and community organizations is the local government to give permission to the organizations authorized to conduct mining with certain rules, while organizations are obliged to pay taxes and keep the environment by following the rule's conception of the environment.

Relationship between community organizations (company's) community with the mining company is to provide opportunities for people to be mine so that workers have the tariffs or fees must be paid to the company's mining community.

When the third relationship can be harmonious and run the rule's set the activities of sand and stone mining can mutually benefit all parties and also the environment.

The problems that arise around the mining of sand

Although in theory the relationship between the community, local government and mining companies can walk in harmony, but in practice in the field, it can become very complex and prone to problems.

Problems often arise, for example there's the wild do not have permission, breach of rules mining, less specifically provided sanctions for the offender, environmental and building storm flow of sediments due to the mining rules infringe, misuse of tax payments etc..

To overcome the above problems are not always easy because the condition is usually complex and there are conflicts of interest from the third component of the community. In the community are usually still less awareness of the preservation of the environment around the mine, including agricultural land and settlements so that their mining activities in the area of the property would culminate in damage to the environment because it does not limit the sand mining is a set standard so that mining companies violate the rules in the mining activities.

Next problem is still there's just wild that does not have a permit. And mining company that has a permit but mining activities violate the rules. For example, they do mining in the vicinity of the building foundation sabo dam so that the stable building. River canyon cutting and digging that violate the limit depth of water so that the lower face of the earth. In this case action is required or expressly sanctioned by the security apparatus, the people themselves and the local government as termination of mining activities and wild mining permit revocation.

The problem is most often ignored is the damage to the environment. If the rule's set is not implemented properly then the environment will be the victims. The building does not control the flow of sediments in accordance with its function, the basic degradation of the river experienced a decline in face of ground water, river cliffs prone to landslides that result in a reduction of agricultural land and settlement residents, the lack of land into the water, dead plants, animals and eventually starve the existence of ecosystems and the life of the region's threatened.

When environmental degradation is threatening the existence of life will arise, namely the impact of continued hunger and social conflict in which each component of the community will blame each other and not feel responsible.

So to avoid or at least minimize the danger of environmental damage that has already occurred in the area of sand mining needs to be done step by step persuasive and decisive penalty by law enforcement. And more important is to increase public awareness of the three components together to perform mining activities, sand and stone are the environment.
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The influence of the rainy season is too long

Currently in some areas are presented on a long rainy season. When we see a seasonal cycle in the tropics, particularly Indonesia, in the normal condition of the rainy season falls in the month of October - April and the dry season occurs in April-October.

In April there's turnover in the rainy season to dry season. Change this pattern, marked with a range of days is not that the long rains, winds blow much faster. Are in the month of October is vice versa.

Cycle can be shifted only one or even two months so that the number of days in the rainy season or dry season becomes longer or shorter.

Now we have tread the middle of June and the rain is quite swift and still can not ascertain whether the rainy season will end soon. Indeed, some regions in Indonesia that have already entered the dry season. Then, if the impact area for the rainy season is longer?

It can have positive impact and negative

Positive impact:
  • On areas that often experience drought, the longer rainy season cause the areas have supply of water more and planting the garden for longer. Water supply in the catchment areas of water such as reservoirs and lakes will supply for agriculture and drinking water in the dry season.
Negative impact:
  • On urban areas, the flood danger still threatens, because in this times, the rain cycle is harder to predict. Sometimes a heavy rain came suddenly in a short duration but that result in a flood-prone.
  • On areas such as agriculture that have a cycle three (3) monthly planting in rice fields, then at the end of May until mid-June will enter the second harvest. Still occur when the rain season harvest will be many problems, such as rice field soil is still wet even have a still stagnant water, drying of rice that are difficult to do in the open because the rain does not tend to be predicted. For rice field areas that prone water stagnated due the river overflow, they also threatened the harvest failed, because with the heavy rain could trigger flooding and river overflow swamp area rice field. Rice will be harvested before damage.
  • In the side of health, change the season to trigger a shift in physical adaptation to the season also shifted. Because basically extended rainy season this was not the real rainy season. This is the turn of the season is longer than usual. And this condition will force our bodies to adapt to change and extreme weather can cause a decrease in resistance of the body cause health disturbances.
So, if the turn of the season is longer such as this time, we need to take early preventive measures against negative impacts that can befall us and the environment around us.

The latter, when in fact the natural conditions such as this to cause physical and material loss, whether this can be categorized as a natural disaster?

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